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Английский язык | 10 - 11 классы

Переведите пожалуйста текст.

The Law of Torts.

The law of “tort” is essentially the law of injuries and remedies for those injuries.

Torts can thus include assault, battery, false imprisonment, negligence, invasion of privacy, defamation, fraud, trespass and other wrongs.

Some of these wrongs may be both civil and criminal in nature.

A battery, for example, may be prosecuted by the state as a violation of the criminal statutes.

The offender may be sentenced to prison and be ordered to pay a fine to the state.

In some cases, he may also be ordered to pay restitution to the victim.

However, the battery may also be a civil tort as well.

The victim (the plaintiff) may sue in civil court for the tort of battery.

If the plaintiff is successful, the defender will be ordered to pay compensatory damages (to compensate for the injury) and punitive damages (to punish the defendant far having caused the act).

In the United States, it is commonly believed that courts will enter punitive damages in an amount that is roughly three times the size of the compensatory damages (which are sometimes called the “special damages” by plaintiff’s lawyers).

Thus, the essential purpose of the law of torts is compensatory and, though punitive damages may occasionally be awarded, its function is distinct from that of criminal law.

Criminal law is essentially punitive and an injured party is not awarded compensation in the criminal proceedings.

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Anastasiya133 28 янв. 2018 г., 07:43:29

Закон деликтов.

Закон "деликта", по существу, закон травм и средств для этих травм.

Таким образом, Правонарушение может включать в себя нападение, аккумулятор, незаконное лишение свободы, нерадивости, вторжение в частную жизнь, клевета, мошенничество, нарушение границ и другие обиды.

Некоторые из этих заблуждений может быть как гражданский и уголовный характер.

Батарея, к примеру, может быть привлечен к ответственности со стороны государства как нарушение уголовного законодательства.

Преступник может быть приговорен к тюремному заключению и быть предписано выплатить штраф государству.

В некоторых случаях он может быть также обязали выплатить возмещение потерпевшему.

Тем не менее, батарея может также быть гражданским деликта, а также.

Пострадавший (истец) может подавать иск в гражданский суд для деликте батареи.

Если истец успешен, защитник будет приказано выплатить возмещение ущерба (компенсации за ущерб), а также штрафные санкции (наказать ответчика далеко причинив акт).

В Соединенных Штатах, обычно считается, что суды будут вводить штрафные убытки в сумме, примерно в три раза превышает размер компенсации за причиненный ущерб (которые иногда называют «специальные убытки» адвокатами истца) .

Таким образом, основная цель закон деликтах является компенсаторной и, хотя штрафные убытки иногда могут быть награждены, его функция отличается от уголовного права.

Уголовное право является по существу карательного и потерпевшая сторона не присудил компенсацию в уголовном процессе.

Lukezi701 7 мар. 2018 г., 14:38:37 | 10 - 11 классы

VIII?

VIII.

Заполните пропуски, используя глаголы, данные в скобках : 1.

In criminal law the state .

(to start) a criminal action.

2. There .

(to be) disagreements between individuals and their property.

3. Criminal law .

(to regulate) relations between citizens and the state.

4. In civil law an individual .

(to start) a civil action.

5. The other party in both cases .

(to be) the defendant.

Заранее спасибо))).

Golpekwekff 10 нояб. 2018 г., 04:59:17 | 10 - 11 классы

Перевод текста HOW DO CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LAWS DIFFER?

Перевод текста HOW DO CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LAWS DIFFER?

​When the private legal rights of an individual are violated, the matter is governed by civil law.

It applies whenever one person has a right to sue another person.

An example of such a situation is when a tenant fails to pay the rent.

The police will not investigate civil conflicts.

​When a person violates certain duties to society and disturbs public peace and order, the violation is governed by criminal law.

The government, acting in the name of all people, investigates, prosecutes, and tries to fine or imprison the alleged wrongdoer.

​Generally, when a crime occurs, private rights of the individual victim are violated at the same time.

Thus, the civil law may also apply.

The victim of the crime may, therefore, sue the wrongdoer but seldom does because it is usually difficult to collect damages from criminals.

Яночка05 24 июн. 2018 г., 11:14:15 | 10 - 11 классы

Ответить на вопросы по тексту THE SYSTEM OF LAW IN OUR COUNTRY Law is а system of rules established by the state?

Ответить на вопросы по тексту THE SYSTEM OF LAW IN OUR COUNTRY Law is а system of rules established by the state.

The main aim of law is to consolidate and safeguard the social and state system and its economic foundation.

The system of law in our country consists of different branches of law.

Constitutional law is a leading branch of the whole system of law.

Its principal source is the country’s Constitution.

It deals with social structure, the state system, organization of state power and the legal status of citizens.

Administrative law is closely connected with constitutional law but it deals with legal forms of concrete executive and administrative activity of the government and ministries.

Financial law regulates the budget, taxation, state credits and other spheres of financial activity.

Civil law is connected with relations in the economic sphere of social life, with relations involving property, its distribution and exchange.

The right в property is the central institution of civil law.

The rules of labour law include the legislation on the labour of industrial and office workers and matters arising from labour relations.

Criminal law defines the general principles of criminal responsibility, individual types of crimes and punishment applied to criminals.

Criminal law takes the form of а criminal code consisting of а general and special part.

Ответьте на вопросы 1.

What is law?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2.

What is the main aim of law?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.

What branches of law does the system of law in our country consist of?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4.

What does each branch of law deal with?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.

Grinasta26 16 апр. 2018 г., 01:39:59 | 10 - 11 классы

Переведите пожалуйста?

Переведите пожалуйста.

The legal system in the United Kingdom (UK) The study of law distinguishes between public law and private law, but in legal practice in the UK the distinction between civil law and criminal law is more important to practising lawyers.

Public law relates to the state.

It is concerned with laws which govern processes in local and national government and conflicts between the individual and the state in areas such as immigration and social security.

Private law is concerned with the relationships between legal persons, that is, individuals and corporations, and includes family law, contract law and property law.

Criminal law deals with certain forms of conduct for which the state reserves punishment, for example murder and theft.

The state prosecutes the offender.

Civil law concerns relationships between, private persons, their rights, and their duties.

It is also concerned with conduct which may give rise to a claim by a legal person for compensation or an injunction – an order made by the court.

However, each field of law tends to overlap with others.

For example, a road accident case may lead to a criminal prosecution as well as a civil action for compensation.

Yana13Yana 9 февр. 2018 г., 05:33:24 | 10 - 11 классы

Переведите текст PROPERTY LAW : The Issue of Rights Law may be broken into Criminal Law and Civil Law?

Переведите текст PROPERTY LAW : The Issue of Rights Law may be broken into Criminal Law and Civil Law.

Civil Law may be broken into Property Law, Contract Law and Tort Law.

Each of these three may be broken into law and equity components.

But it is Property Law which brings a need for the other many types of Civil Law.

It is the right of private property ownership ("mine, not yours") which gives the need for Property Law.

If there is no right to private property, then the king owns everything and punishes any who violates the laws he makes to protect what is his.

Well, if two of the actions in trespass were based upon injury to property or to property rights, a law of property would be required so that we could determine who owned what, or had what rights in what property.

If you damage my property, we need Tort Law, if I want to sell the land to you we need Contract Law ; if I want you to get my property when I die, we need Inheritance Law ; if I want to pay by check, we need Negotiable Instruments Law ; if we want to be merchants or manufacturers of products, we need Merchant Law ; we need remedies and procedure to make law work for us when someone breaches the law.

Thus Property Law asks : What are the respective rights : ownership - possession - use, present or future, contingent or certain, etc.

Of competing parties (that is, whose rights are the higher)?

Is the proof sufficient to tip the scales?

What needs to be done to uphold, or protect the rights?

Because of the importance attached to ownership of property and the means of production as well as the right to peaceable enjoyment, damages did not need to be shown to bring and win a case in Property Law.

The earliest cases were all strictliability : volitionally do an act and you are liable without regards to the state of your mind.

However, the state of your mind might effect the damage question.

Salaminalbosh 13 янв. 2018 г., 01:09:40 | 10 - 11 классы

Переведите пожалуйста, очень нужно The objective of the criminal law is to protect the community?

Переведите пожалуйста, очень нужно The objective of the criminal law is to protect the community.

There are several different types of crimes.

For example, there are offences against the person such as assault ; offences against property such as theft ; and offences against public order such as riot.

Civil cases are cases taken by individual people or businesses in order to claim or enforce a right.

There are different types of civil cases.

For example, there may be a breach of contract or there may be a claim for damage done through the negligence of another person (this is known as a civil wrong or tort).

Usually the person making the claim wants money to compensate for what has happened.

However, there are other special remedies which can be given.

In civil cases the main purpose is to investigate disputes between the parties and decide whether the defendant is liable to pay compensation.

There is no punishment involved.

Civil law is generally compensatory.

Civil proceedings, as a private matter, can be ended by settlement between the parties at any time.

Actions brought to the court are usually tried without a jury.

Higher courts deal with more complicated civil cases.

Most judgments are for sums of money and the costs of the prosecution are generally paid by the party losing it.

The name of the case will usually tell you if the case is criminal or civil.

The letter "R" stands for Rex (which means King) or Regina (which means Queen), showing that the case has been started by the State.

The small letter "v" between the names means "versus" (against).

In the civil cases the surname of the person starting the case is given first, then the surname of the person he is suing (taking the case against).

If a company is involved in a case, then the company's name is used.

In Anglo - American law, the party bringing a criminal action (in most cases it is the state) is called the prosecution.

The legal term for the person starting the civil case is the claimant (previously plaintiff).

In both kinds of action the other party is known as the defendant.

Another important difference between civil and criminal cases is what is called the burden of proof or the standard to which the case has to be proved.

In criminal cases this standard is a high one, beyond reasonable doubt, since a conviction could result in the defendant going to prison for a long time (or, in some countries, executed).

In civil cases the standard is lower, on the balance of probabilities.

This is because the judge has to decide for one party or the other and so he considers all the evidence and gives judgment for the party which he thinks is most probably right.

Sometimes one action can be in breach of two types of law.

This gives rise to what is known as double liability.

It means that two separate court cases may take place.

Double liability can occur wherever there is a crime and, in the course of this crime, an individual's rights were affected.

It most often hap pens where there is a road traffic offence (involving criminal law) and someone is injured as a result so that he or she wants to claim damages (under the law of torts).

Алвламт 8 окт. 2018 г., 21:42:34 | 10 - 11 классы

The Rule of Law The concept of the rule of law is the cornerstone of any democratic society and government?

The Rule of Law The concept of the rule of law is the cornerstone of any democratic society and government.

It is the law which is used to decide disputes.

The law is one of the means for controlling the conduct of businesses.

The basic role of law in business decisions is apparent.

It contains business in its decisions and its selection of alternative courses of action.

Certain conduct is illegal, and if individuals or businesses didn’t follow the rule of law and their conduct were declared a crime, they would be subject to sanctions, e.

G. , fines or imprisonment.

The sanctions will include liability for damages, if the conduct is tortuous (involving a wrongful act) or a breach of law.

Besides, the law and legal sanctions may be used to prevent certain conduct or to require that certain things be done.

If business decisions are not made within the law, sanctions will be imposed.

The law is the foundation for the regulation of all business conduct and decisions.

Перевод текста.

Sofyavk 14 авг. 2018 г., 04:24:30 | 10 - 11 классы

Составьте пять вопросов к тексту?

Составьте пять вопросов к тексту.

THE ISSUE OF RIGHTS Law may be broken into Criminal Law and Civil Law.

Civil Law may be broken into Property Law, Contract Law and Tort Law.

Each of these three may be broken into law and equity components.

But it is Property Law which brings a need for the other many types of Civil Law.

It is the right of private property ownership which gives the need for Property Law.

If there is no right to private property, then the king owns everything and punishes any who violates the laws he makes to protect what is his.

Well, if two of the actions in trespass were based upon injury to property rights, a law of property would be required so that we could determine who owned what, or had what rights in what property.

If you damage my property, we need Tort law ; if I want to sell the land to you we need Contract Law ; if I want you to get my property when I die, we need Inheritance Law, if I want to pay by check, we need Negotiable Instruments Law ; if we want to be merchants or manufacturers of products, we need Merchant Law ; we need remedies and procedure to make law work for us when someone breaches the law.

Thus Property Law asks : What are the respective rights : ownership – possession – use, present or future, contingent or certain, etc.

Of competing parties?

Is the proof sufficient to tip the scales?

What needs to be done to uphold, or protect the rights?

Ололюша96 14 мая 2018 г., 17:17:45 | 5 - 9 классы

Помогите, пожалуйста, придумать 8 вопросов к этому тексту (в 8 вопросов должны входить общие, специальные, альтернативные и разделительные) Courts of the United States include both the United States f?

Помогите, пожалуйста, придумать 8 вопросов к этому тексту (в 8 вопросов должны входить общие, специальные, альтернативные и разделительные) Courts of the United States include both the United States federal courts, comprising the judicial branch of the federal government of the United States (operating under the authority of the United States Constitution and federal law) and state and territorial courts of the individual U.

S. states and territories (operating under the authority of the state and territorial constitutions and state and territorial law) Federal statutes that refer to the "courts of the United States" are referring only to the courts of the federal government, and not the courts of the individual states.

Because of the federalist underpinnings of the division between sovereign federal and state governments, the various state court systems are free to operate in ways that vary widely from those of the federal government, and from one another.

In practice, however, every state has adopted a division of its judiciary into at least two levels, and almost every state has three levels, with trial courts hearing cases which may be reviewed by appellate courts, and finally by a state supreme court.

A few states have two separate supreme courts, with one having authority over civil matters and the other reviewing criminal cases.

47 states and the federal government allow at least one appeal of right from a final judgment on the merits, meaning that the court receiving the appeal must decide the appeal after it is briefed and argued properly.

Three states do not provide a right to a first appeal.

Rather, they give litigants only a right to petition for the right to have an appeal heard.

State courts often have diverse names and structures, as illustrated below.

State courts hear about 98% of litigation ; most states have courts of special jurisdiction, which typically handle minor disputes such as traffic citations, and courts of general jurisdiction responsible for more serious disputes.

The U.

S. federal court system hears cases involving litigants from two or more states, violations of federal laws, treaties, and the Constitution, admiralty, bankruptcy, and related issues.

In practice, about 80% of the cases are civil and 20% criminal.

The civil cases often involve civil rights, patents, and Social Security while the criminal cases involve tax fraud, robbery, counterfeiting, and drug crimes.

The trial courts are U.

S. district courts, followed by United States courts of appeals and then the Supreme Court of the United States.

The judicial system, whether state or federal, begins with a court of first instance, whose work may be reviewed by an appellate court, and then ends at the court of last resort, which may review the work of the lower courts.

89516731833 11 февр. 2018 г., 03:25:51 | 10 - 11 классы

ПОМОГИТЕ С ПЕРЕВОДОМ ПОЖАЛУЙСТА?

ПОМОГИТЕ С ПЕРЕВОДОМ ПОЖАЛУЙСТА!

The lawyers of different countries differ widely from one another.

The Continent bases its jurisprudence upon the university - made civil law, in place of the Judge - made common law of England and the USA.

The practice of this civil law consists of several co - ordinate professions, each constituting a career in itself.

Such are, for instance, the professions of judge, of diplomat, of higher civil servant, of law teacher and scholar.

The United States stand at the opposite extreme ; the student, after his formal education is completed, is admitted by the State to the privilege of general practice of the law.

There is little or no connection between his course of preparation - which may or may not be in a university - and the particular line of highly specialized legal activity in which he will find himself at first, and from which he can later pass to the bench, into politics or even business.

In England the lawyer occupies a position somewhat resembling that of his colleague in the United States, but not to the extreme exemplified here.

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